Car speakers: what types of speakers there?
Car speakers-one of the most important components, without which it is impossible to provide high-quality sound in your car. But if you have no experience, it immediately will be very difficult to understand that a variety of models on the market. In this article we look at the main types of car audio their features and purpose. This will help any driver to make the right choice when buying speakers in the car.
The perceived by the human ear frequency range is in the range from about 20 Hz to 20 kHz. And it is natural that many would like to get a speaker that can play the whole range. And manufacturers offer similar models, which are called-range speakers.
But here except for the ability to work with these frequencies, it is important that the sound quality on the outer parts of the range was good. And here it is important to consider that for the efficient transmission of frequencies in lowercase speaker cone classical design should have a fairly large size. In particular, in order to work well with a frequency of 40 Hz, the diameter will optimally about 30 cm. However, when dealing with high frequencies such diffuser will not "keep up" required to transmit the sound vibrations entire surface. Therefore, when it comes to broadband acoustics, it is always the result of some compromise, which accounts for the engineers to go in the development of their design.
To ensure high-quality reproduction of high frequencies in the center of the diffuser shirokopolosnika placed an additional high-frequency diffuser, it is sometimes referred to as "ruporok" or cone-Wieser. It helps convey the dynamics of the "fast" variations.
The most problematic place any wideband speaker-play frequencies within the audible range. If speakers may operate in a range of 60 to 16000 Hz and thus it will have an error rate of not more than 10 dB, it is possible to speak of its high quality and a good working parameters.
Among the features of the speakers of this type may be mentioned a high sensitivity-from 90-92 dB and above, achieved by very simple construction and the absence of additional filters (crossovers). That is why they are popular among fans of tube amplifiers, which often have limitations on the power level.
It should also say that this range speakers on the parameters considered as close to a point source of sound-a perfect acoustic object in terms of localization. That is, the listener will be able to determine as accurately as possible the sound source and its location. This is important where it is necessary to create an accurate soundstage. After all, you do not need to use many different speakers, you will have one sound source, and the minimum area.
Just keep in mind that the simplest wideband acoustics will be the cheapest solution, so there is not necessary to wait for a miracle and perfectly accurate reproduction.
To achieve maximum clarity and purity of sound is better to use a separate, highly specialized speakers that are designed to work with different parts of the frequency range.
The tweeter (tweeter)
The speakers of this type are responsible for the reproduction of high frequencies. What causes some features of their design. For example, they typically have a diffuser small area of a light but strong material. This is important because the acoustics have to work with frequencies not less than 1500 Hz.
The most common option is the dome tweeter. This central body dynamics of the membrane occupies almost the whole area of the primary radiating surface. same diffuser for their itself is usually made of a light fabric with special impregnation which provides increased rigidity of the material. In addition, sometimes the use of other materials, more stringent, such as beryllium.
An important parameter of any tweeter-resonance frequency. When creating this type of acoustic engineers are trying to make sure that this parameter is below the reproduction band. Then the speaker can provide the most accurate sound. This is important because when playing a frequency approaching the resonance indicator, there may be interference, as the system becomes difficult to manage.
To avoid any distortion, it is recommended to use a crossover. This small special device used to limit the frequency range for the tweeter. Crossover is able to "cut" the frequency of self-resonant acoustics, which are arranged below the main working range of the speaker.
Another important parameter tweeter is a high upper limit of the transmitted frequency. Ideally, it should be above the upper threshold frequency of the audible range-to over 20,000 Hz. What is it?
The expansion of the upper limit of the range enables dynamic transmit so-called upper harmonics, thereby forming the most accurate sound the highest frequencies.
It should be noted that these requirements are mutually exclusive. To reduce the response should be to use a larger size cone, but to increase the upper frequency response boundaries of just the opposite. Therefore, for many years, the manufacturers compete with each other, who will be able to find a perfect balance.
This type of speakers are responsible for the midrange, that is responsible for the range over which the human ear perceives all frequencies and is very sensitive to any distortions. They are sometimes called midbass. By design, they are very close to the classical dynamics.
vulnerabilities of any midrange is the effect of the so-called flexural waves. In this case, a deformation of the diffuser, its peripheral region has no time for the motion of the center, where you installed the voice coil. That is, it turns out that different parts of the diffuser have a different amplitude fluctuations, which significantly hinders the harmonious music transfer. The sound is very "loose" and inaccurate.
Given the possible manifestations of this effect in the midrange is usually used more stringent diffusers. And here it is important to provide a compromise between weight and stiffness of the membrane, so as not to overdo it with rigidity, otherwise the sound is of poor quality.
This is the type and design of the diffuser depends on the quality of sound transmission and class dynamics. The most common material-Kevlar composite materials based on cellulose, carbon fiber, glass fiber, wood fiber, etc.
The woofer (woofer)
This type of speaker is responsible for the transmission of the base, the lower frequency sounds from the register. Their peculiarity is that they have a fairly large area of the emitter. The size of the speaker can vary from 8 to 15 inches or even more. For them, the most preferred will be fully piston operation, which suggests that the diffuser is reciprocating movement as a whole.
The problem in this case is solved quite radically. The diffuser is necessary to do the most stringent, much tougher than the midrange. Moreover, despite the weighting structure. This is acceptable, since human hearing when playing the bass are least sensitive to any distortions. And if the diffuser is extremely important to observe the desired vibration amplitude, for the sake of high rigidity producers have to go to increase the weight of the speaker.
Sometimes, the movable weight system in large woofers can reach 200 grams and more. Diffusers can have a spatial structure, something resembling an airplane wing, they are made from multilayer composite material, and the inner cavity filled with special lightweight honeycomb structures.
When you create a high-quality audiophile systems specialists are trying still to find a balance and to minimize the weight of the diffuser to reduce the amount of distortion.
It is also worth mentioning that the woofers oscillation amplitude is the largest among all types of car speakers. They use long-stroke (long) voice coil. External suspension is very often made of rubber. This is important to the diffuser while the maximum can be shifted from its central point.
With regard to the magnetic system, then there is also used by large and heavy magnets (ferrite, neodymium, etc.). In the woofer, which work on high-power semiconductor amplifiers can be installed with a minimum indicator of the coil resistance-2 or even 1 ohm.
Coaxial car speakers
When building a two- or three-way speaker system in saloon car tweeter, midrange and low-frequency drivers have to be installed in different places separately. It turns out that the sound is dispersed in space. And it is this factor can often negatively affect the quality. Especially, if the placement of speakers arranged disorders or general scheme misconceived. Since the ear is difficult to identify the source of the sound, and if the settings are incorrect, the listener can notice the difference, as the high, mid and low frequencies will be played from different points.
The solution steel coaxial speakers. The peculiarity of the fact that in one design combined immediately capabilities of several types of speakers: tweeters, midrange and woofer. They may be two or three-way. At first glance, these combinations dynamics look very easy. The two-lane performance tweeter woofer is placed in the center, as the size of tweeters allows it very easy to do. However, from an engineering point of view, the development and creation of the speaker requires more effort, so as to balance the sound, it is necessary to perform complex calculations. However, high-end manufacturers do well with this challenge by offering a very good coaxial speakers with a good stereo effect.
Which option to choose for your car everyone decides for himself. As a rule, cheaper coaxial speakers, as yet there is present a compromise, and they can not always show the full sound over a wide range. Component systems, which consist of several individual speakers to play the sound in different frequency registers are usually more expensive, but they are often used by professionals. This option is suitable for music lovers who want to get the perfect sound across the entire frequency spectrum. In this installation coaxial speaker does not require complex calculations, while as a component necessary to tinker, because we need to seriously think about the place of their location so that they do not interfere with each other and there is no resonance.
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