What differs between a synthetic, semi-synthetic and mineral motor oil
Sometimes the driver is difficult to determine the type of engine oil as manufacturers offer a very large selection. In this article, we examine the differences fundamental choices of engine oil: mineral, synthetic and semi-synthetic.
So in general, the video can be identified such signs:
- Mineral oil is obtained in a natural way, in fact it is what remains after the distillation of crude oil in its gasoline and diesel.
- Synthetic oil & ndash; a fully synthetic product, the resulting synthesis gas.
- Synthetic & mdash; It is the result of refinement of mineral oil, to which is added a part synthetic base.
Any engine oil consists of & laquo; Base & raquo; and additives. Under the & laquo; base & raquo; here refers to a base oil, it was on his mind the final product and are assigned to one of three basic types: mineral, semi-synthetic or synthetic. In fact, the types of base oils 5:
- High sulfur mineral & ndash; it is obtained from heavy petroleum fractions which are combined with solvents.
- Low-sulfur mineral & ndash; classic mineral oil elapsed purification. Usually pure form it is a product, diverse in its molecular composition.
- hydrocracking & ndash; a mineral oil, which has been hydrotreated. In this case, large molecules are destroyed in order to equalize the properties of the oil and creating homogeneous structures. Typically, this oil has the trade name & ndash; HC-synthetics.
- 100% synthetic. It is based on polyalphaolefins (PAO). In this case, the molecules pass through chemical synthesis. The oil used as a raw material gas, such as decene. The result is a liquid with a homogeneous structure.
- Supersinteticheskoe. The main difference of this type in the presence of & laquo; & raquo ;, esters are esters resulting from the interaction of alcohols and acids. Sometimes, as the basis of such oils can be a polyalkylene glycol. This type of oil is quite expensive, so not so popular and in demand in the market.
In its pure form separate semisynthetic basics are not there. It is obtained by mixing low-sulfur mineral oil and 100% synthetics. The percentage of PAO in them does not exceed 30%. Addition of synthetic lubricants necessary for stabilization properties, as a pure mineral water often has great characteristics in dissonance.
What parameters should look for when comparing different types of engine oil?
The main parameters should be considered when comparing the performance of:
- The viscosity index & ndash; parameter determining the stability of oil viscosity with temperature. The higher this number is, the smaller the oil viscosity at low temperatures that will facilitate easier starting of the automobile engine.
- The figures for SAE & mdash; the main indicator of the oil viscosity. Each package oil write two digits. For example, 10W-40, then 10W & ndash; is the viscosity at cold start, and 40 & ndash; viscosity at operating temperature class.
- The oxidation of & mdash; It reflects the amount of time during which the temperature of the liquid is completely finish off & ndash; base turbid, additives lose their properties, etc. .
- The index volatility NOACK & mdash; He characterizes the quality of the fractional composition. Simply put, it allows you to determine the propensity of oil to the composition of the formation of deposits at high heat.
- Flashpoint Closed Cup & mdash; it affects the security, as it reflects the maximum temperature at which the oil can be ignited by a spark.
The basic operational differences between various oils
One of the main performance indicators of any lubricant & ndash; viscosity. It reflects how oil behaves under high load. The formed film can be very thin and will easily break, which will result in accelerated wear of the cylinder walls. And if the composition is very thick, about the film will be too thick. It will also adversely affect the operation of the engine, because the excess can coked scraper rings, limiting their mobility.
If we consider the types of oil, then they will have the following options & nbsp; viscosity SAE:
- Mineral avtomasla: 15W-40, 20W-50 .
- Synthetic (PAO): 0W-40, 5W-40, 15W-60, 10W-60 .
- semisynthetic:. 10W-40
- HC-synthetics: 5W-40, 10W-40, 0W-20, 5W-20, 0W-16, 5W-30 .
From this we can conclude that in the temperature range of the smallest run are mineral oils and a wide & ndash; synthetic. If you look at the rate of viscosity at operating temperature, it shall reflect the instructions to the vehicle. For most automobile engines recommended HC-synthetic and synthetic oils with indicators 5W-40 and 0W-40, 0W-20 and 0W-16.
Synthetic oil with indicators 15W-60, 10W-60 & ndash; suitable for highly sporting engines, where the priority is the indicator of the oil film stability when operating the motor at maximum speed. Semi-synthetic oils are recommended for old cars and domestic cars.
Differ, synthetic and semi-synthetic oils and the oxidation rate and NOACK. Everything is simple, synthetic oxidized slowly, it will longer remain transparent and not turbid, in addition, this type of oil is less prone to intoxication. But there is a negative aspect, coke deposits at a & nbsp; the heat of the synthetic compounds are very stable and are difficult to remove. Therefore, they are not recommended for & nbsp; for domestic cars.
Semi-synthetic motor oil is rapidly oxidized and aging, that is, he has a pretty short lifespan, the composition is also subject to frenzy and has an unstable viscosity during the time of its operation. Someone may say that the problem is easily solved by replacing semi-synthetic lubricant on synthetic, it will increase the life of the motor works, but it is a wrong statement. Firstly, the oil system in older engines designed for a certain fixed minimum kinematic viscosity at cold start oil. Secondly, because of use of seals and other seals at their lack of tightness & nbsp; engine may consume oil and smoke.
The best solution here is HC-synthetics, combines the advantages of synthetic and mineral compositions. They occupy a dominant position in the market, but what is very important, they are suitable even for domestic cars.
What are the additives, and what they do
Often in oil is added special substances & mdash; additives. Their main task & ndash; reduce the rate of oxidation and lubrication give better cleaning capacity. In addition, they are necessary in order to improve the frictional characteristics of the composition.
As the additives are most often used such substances:
- Phosphorus and zinc & ndash; contribute to the wear resistance.
- Calcium and magnesium & ndash; enhance the cleaning properties.
- Molybdenum and boron & ndash; improve the anti-friction performance.
This information will help you make the right choice for car oil. If you want to buy motor oil in Kiev, Kharkov and Odessa, the online store 130.com.ua you will find a selection of synthetic, semi-synthetic and mineral compositions.